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Welcome to the
Micronutrient Survey
Manual & Toolkit

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Introduction

Micronutrients, commonly known as vitamins and minerals, are essential in small amounts for proper growth and development. Micronutrient deficiencies can lead to impaired physiological development and socioeconomic achievement. Preventing deficiencies requires that people have access to enough food and an appropriately diverse diet. Certain population groups, especially women and children, are at greater risk of deficiencies. Populations that are deficient in one micronutrient are often vulnerable to deficiencies in others, thus interventions to address different micronutrient deficiencies frequently use the same delivery mechanism.

Surveys to assess micronutrient status provide a basis for policy makers and programme implementers to understand variations among different population groups, to assess where micronutrient deficiencies exist, to evaluate the impact of interventions to improve micronutrient status, and to gather the evidence needed to improve programming.

Recently Updated

Module 3
Biomarker selection and specimen handling
Updated Sep 11, 2020
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Module 14
Data entry, cleaning and processing
Updated Sep 2, 2020
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Module 1
Planning and designing a micronutrient survey
Updated Sep 2, 2020
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The following table provides a short description of each module. Programme managers, responsible for designing and implementing micronutrient surveys, should read and become familiar with every module. In addition, as suggested on the table, certain specialists will find specific modules most useful.

Table of Contents

Module 1
Planning and designing a micronutrient survey
Module 2
Indicators of programme coverage, specimen selection, management and analysis
Module 3
Biomarker selection and specimen handling
Module 4
Survey design
Module 5
Sample size
Module 6
Selecting clusters
Module 7
Selecting households and participants
Module 8
Survey supervision and personnel
Module 9
Survey equipment and supplies
Module 10
Budget and timeline
Module 11
Data collection tools, field manual, and database
Module 12
Training and pilot testing
Module 13
Field logistics
Module 14
Data entry, cleaning and processing
Module 15
Data analysis
Module 16
Survey reports and dissemination

Module 1: Planning and designing a micronutrient survey
Describes key considerations necessary for planning and implementing a micronutrient survey. Specifically, it describes defining the scope and objectives for the survey, and navigating the next steps of protocol development and ethical approval.
Targets: Programme manager, Survey coordinator, Steering committee, Technical committee
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Module 2: Indicators of programme coverage, specimen selection, management and analysis
Describes how to select biological specimens for different population groups and food samples for surveillance and evaluation of fortification programmes.
Targets: Programme manager, Technical committee, Data coordinator, central data team, field, laboratory and management staff
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Module 3: Biomarker selection and specimen handling
Describes the specific biomarkers, the type of specimen to collect, and analytical methods required for various micronutrients and related health indicators. There is ample information on laboratory methods and the correct interpretation of micronutrient biomarkers.
Targets: Programme manager, laboratory coordinator, Regional laboratory supervisor field, laboratory and management staff
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Module 4: Survey design
Focuses on how various design factors would complement certain survey objectives. For example, is it necessary to have national or sub-national estimates for the chosen indicators? Could the survey objectives be met if the data collection was nested within another ongoing survey? These factors, along with periodicity of data collection and mode of data collection are discussed.
Targets: Programme manager, Technical committee, Survey statistician
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Module 5: Sample size
Describes how to calculate appropriate sample sizes for key indicators among population groups of interest with adequate precision. The survey objectives must be taken into consideration and balanced with the available budget. There are examples of sample size calculations that account for stratification, clustering, and non-response.
Targets: Programme manager, Technical committee, Survey statistician
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Module 6: Selecting clusters
“Clusters” is the most common term used to describe the primary sampling units (PSUs) that are selected for sampling in micronutrient surveys. This module explains methods for and provides examples of selecting clusters, using probability proportional to size (PPS), simple random sampling (SRS), and systematic sampling (SS).
Targets: Programme manager, Technical committee, Survey statistician
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Module 7: Selecting households and participants
Reviews the general principles of household mapping and listing, and outlines the responsibilities of listing and mapping personnel. There are examples on how to (1) map clusters and households, (2) segment primary sampling units, (3) select households in a cluster and (4) identify and select eligible individuals in selected households.
Targets: Programme manager, Survey statistician
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Module 8: Survey supervision and personnel
Outlines survey oversight and staffing. This module describes the personnel needs for micronutrient surveys, from the overarching organizational structure to the field team composition. There are suggestions for field team recruitment as well as for the roles of the subcommittees overseeing the coordination of the survey.
Targets: Programme manager, Survey coordinator, household listing and mapping team, Field coordinator, regional supervisors
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Module 9: Survey equipment and supplies
Provides detailed information and links to tools to help plan for specific survey supply and equipment needs. Since equipment and supplies may not be readily available and can take a while to procure, it is important to determine the needs for data collection and laboratory assessment early in the planning phase of the survey.
Targets: Programme manager, Survey coordinator, Steering committee, Technical committee, Field coordinator, Laboratory coordinator, regional supervisors
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Module 10: Budget and timeline
Provides an example of micronutrient survey budgets and timelines.
Targets: Programme manager, Survey coordinator, Technical committee, Laboratory coordinator, Field coordinator
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Module 11: Data collection tools, field manual, and database
Describes the development of data collection tools such as questionnaires, and discusses the survey database. Early planning on database development can enable file checking throughout data collection, which would lead to higher quality survey data. This module also covers informed consent and accurate determination of a child’s age
Targets: Programme manager, Survey coordinator, Steering committee, Technical committee, budget and finance subcommittee, Laboratory coordinator
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Module 12: Training and pilot testing
Discusses how to develop training agendas and conduct the pilot testing for micronutrient surveys.
Targets: Programme manager, Technical committee, Field coordinator, Data coordinator, central data team, regional supervisors
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Module 13: Field logistics
Outlines the complexities of data collection in the field and provides suggestions for effective communication, efficient movement of supplies, staff and specimens throughout the survey. If the survey requires a cold chain then proper mapping, planning and budgeting prior to data collection is necessary. The requirements for cold chain can be underestimated.
Targets: Programme manager, Technical committee, Deputy coordinator, Field coordinator, Laboratory coordinator, regional supervisors
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Module 14: Data entry, cleaning and processing
Describes the steps necessary after data collection to come to a complete database for the survey. It also discusses outlier variables and dichotomizing continuous variables for reporting prevalence estimates in the final report.
Targets: Programme manager, Technical committee, Deputy coordinator, Field coordinator, Data coordinator, central data team, Laboratory coordinator, regional supervisors
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Module 15: Data analysis
Focuses on appropriate reporting of estimates collected by the survey. Specifically, it addresses the use of complex survey design parameters such as cluster, strata and weighting variables.
Targets: Programme manager, Data coordinator, central data team, regional supervisors
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Module 16: Survey reports and dissemination
Provides considerations for disseminating the new information generated from the micronutrient survey. Examples include an executive summary or key indicator report, the full survey report, protocol papers or scientific manuscripts.
Targets: Programme manager, Technical committee, Data coordinator, Database managers and data processing staff
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The Micronutrient Survey Manual & Toolkit is a collaboration of: